Pruning of fruit trees

Pruning of fruit trees is a regular additional technical measure that includes a large number of fruit techniques and methods used in fruiting trees, stone fruit and pome fruit species to control the growth, removal of broken, dried or unhealthy branches and twigs, simultaneously having the function of stimulating the progress of flower and leaf buds. On the branches and twigs, in the bark, and in the folds around the bud certain harmful microorganisms often dwell overwinter, as well as stages of some overwintering insect pests whose infectious potential is being removed by pruning.

The main goal of pruning fruit trees is to obtain quality fruit growth, and achieving the proper relationship between vegetative and fruit (generative) buds, in order to establish a balance between growth and yield.

The most commonly used techniques of pruning are thinning and shortening. Thinning removes the excess of shoots and increases the productivity, while offshoots are being truncated by shortening, so the plant would branch at a certain height.

By winter pruning of young fruit trees one year old shoots are removed at the top of the skeletal branches are shoots are rarefied and some more redundant branches, which have an undesirable position are being removed.

For each individual fruit species specific way of pruning should be done depending on location and gender of budding and pruning and by a qualified person, although it is popularly known adage "better any pruning than none"

The proper incision is always skewed in relation to the bud and about 1 cm above the very bud. When pruning, one should be careful not to cut diagonally towards the bud. Bigger cuts (larger than 1 cm) are coated with grafting wax to close the "open doors" through which many harmful microorganisms and insects might penetrate.

After pruning, pruned branches and twigs should be taken out of the plantation and be burned.

Fruit trees are pruned starting from the fall (after the end of the growing season), and in the winter until early spring, when the tree is dormant. Summer pruning, the so-called corrective one, is being performed at the beginning of the summer, in order to achieve better quality, more coloured fruits and unburden the fruit and allow good ventilation of the tree crown.